THE ANGLO-ROMAN RITE
What is it and why?
The Anglican Rite, sometimes known as the Anglo-Roman Rite simply means, in Catholic terms, the Tridentine liturgical use that stems from the ancient Catholic Church of England. Today the Anglican Rite of the Universal Church is represented by the Anglican Patriarchate, See of St. Stephen, which succeeded to the Coadjutorship of Rome and the leadership of the Stato Pontificio as temporal successors of St. Peter the Apostle in Italy and Britannia. How did this happen? First, let's start with the terminology.
The term "Anglican" is sometimes confusing since it also came to refer to the Protestant Church of England that came about after the Protestant Reformation and also has been used to describe some groups that have separated from the Anglican Communion and its various branches such as the Episcopal Church. A "rite" is simply a liturgical usage. The word "Anglican" simply refers to English - in the sense of England, not the language. Both England and Anglican derived from the Angles, southern Scandinavians who, along with the Saxons and Jutes invaded Roman Britannia after the fall of the Roman Empire. Anglo-Saxon England persisted until the Norman Conquest of 1066. But what about the Anglican Rite? When was it founded?
The Anglican Rite was founded by Saint Augustine of Canterbury, a Roman who was sent by the Pope as Apostle to the British in 597. That is generally considered the beginning of the formal Catholic Church of England. However, the Catholic faith was already present in Britannia from the time of the Christian Roman Empire. Britannia had been part of the Empire since the conquest that began under the Emperor Claudius in AD 43. Christianity in Britain from the Roman era was part of the Latin Rite, though there were various liturgical uses (styles of worship) there, just as there were in various locations in Europe. Even after the formal establishment of the Catholic Church of England, the Anglican Rite liturgy was still, of course, in the Latin language.
When Saint Augustine of Canterbury came to Britannia, it was under the rule of the Anglo-Saxons. Nevertheless. Most of the early Archbishop of Canterbury were in fact Romans or Italians. Eventually Anglo-Saxon bishops became appointed as well, including his Archbishop of Canterbury. But what was the relationship between England/Britannia and Rome/Italy?
Britannia was part of the Roman Empire for around 300 years - around one third of the existence of the Empire. The relationship between Rome and England did not stop with the fall of the Western Roman Empire. Even in the middle ages, trade was known to be in existence between the two locations. In fact, just as the Romans and the Latin language influenced the English language (particularly modern English that came about after the Norman Conquest), so too did Norman English influence the burgeoning Italian languages that grew out of Latin. (Modern English is essentially a Germanic romance language.) This relationship continued on through the ages, with Pope Julius II even bestowing the title of Defender of the Faith on the English King Henry VIII before his divorce from Catherine of Aragón and break with the Church of Rome. Indeed, England regularly fought on the side of the Papacy in the many wars that took place during the Middle Ages and Renaissance.
And since there were Germanic people and Scandinavians in Britain, were they also in Italy? After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Italy was ruled by the Germanic Ostrogoths, who established a Kingdom of Italy that included the Italian peninsula and the Dalmatian coast (approximately the territory of the former Yugoslavia). They were deposed by the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire) under the Emperor Justinian. In 568, the Lombards, a Germanic people from southern Scandinavia, established the Lombard Kingdom of Italy, which controlled most of the peninsula. The modern Italian province of Lombardia still bears their name. Lombard rule was ended in Italy by the Germanic Franks under Charlemagne, future Emperor of the Romans, whose Kingdom of Italy included a large portion of the peninsula. The southern region, however, remained in Lombard control. In 999, the Normans, the same French-Scandinavian people that invaded Britain in 1066, invaded southern Italy. They gradually gained control from the Lombards, with several prominent inter-marriages. In 1061, the Normans, under the House of Altavilla, invaded Sicily, establishing a new Kingdom there. Meanwhile, the Burgundians, who originated in southern Scandinavia, under the Houses of Arles and Ivrea, ruled the Imperial Kingdom of Italy and several states within it, such as the Margraviates of Ivrea and Tuscany.
The House of Ivrea later ruled Aragón, Castile y León, Barcelona, and all Spain. King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella were of the House of Trastámara, a cadet branch of Ivrea. Today the Patriarchate is the heir to the House of Ivrea in Imperial Italy.
And how did the successor to the Coadjutorship of Rome and the Stato Pontificio come to be of the Anglican Rite? The answer is very simple.
The Patriarchal See that was subsequently recognised as Coadjutor of Rome and successor to the Stato Pontificio was originally of the Anglican Rite. It was based in the formerly-Spanish city of San Antonio and had been formed as part of the traditionalist Anglican movement. It subsequently formally became Roman Catholic through Old Roman Catholic Apostolic Succession stemming from the Roman Catholic See of Utrecht, as well as Byzantine and other Eastern Rite apostolic lineages. The See of Utrecht, with its heritage in the Holy Roman Empire, has apostolic lineage more ancient than the Roman Communion and was given autonomy over 900 years ago. Also, the Anglican apostolic succession of the Patriarchate has a Roman Catholic source in the Diocese of Spalato, now known as Split, Croatia. The Cathedral in Split is built on the site of the palace of the Emperor Diocletian, mentor of the future Emperor Constantine the Great, who would eventually legalised Christianity in the Empire. In fact, Constantine's father was the Emperor of Britain and Gaul during the tetrarchy (ruled by four emperors).
The Patriarchate also uses the Roman Tridentine Rite. Bishops who are in communion with the Patriarchal See may also use any traditional Roman or Eastern Catholic Rite according to their heritage. Such bishops are referred to as being part of the New Roman Communion, which takes its name from the Florentine heritage of the Patriarchate, with Florence being the second New Rome after Constantinople.
The ancient roots of Britannia as an important part of the Roman Empire forever link the Anglican Rite to Rome. It is that ancient Roman heritage that the Anglican Patriarchate, Patriarchal See of the Stato Pontificio and the New Roman Communion continues to perpetuate, safeguard, and preserve now and into the future.
Il Patriarcato Anglicano (Chiesa Romano Cattolica di Rito Anglicano) è una sovranità ecclesiastica per diritto di Roma con un governo indipendente a stato consultivo speciale col Consiglio Economico e Sociale delle Nazioni Unite. Inoltre, discendiamo dalla Sede di Utrecht, a cui fu concessa l'autonomia nel 1145 da Papa Eugenio III e confermata nel 1520 da Papa Leone X nella Bolla Debitum Pastoralis, questo diritto divenne noto come Privilegio Leonino. Come l'unico successore di Papa Leone X e successore temporale di San Pietro Apostolo in Italia ed in Britannia, il Patriarcato è pienamente cattolico e detiene la stessa autorità canonica della Comunione Romana (Vaticano). Il Patriarcato è il successore ecclesiastico di Roma temporale, il patrimonio temporale dell'Impero Romano rivendicato storicamente di diritto del papato. La successione passò al Patriarcato dopo Benedetto XVI per diritto di Roma e Firenze, con l'Arcipadre (Vescovo di San Stefano) con autorità papale come successore temporale di San Pietro, e il Papa (Vescovo di Roma) come successore spirituale di San Pietro e de facto sovrano dello Stato della Città del Vaticano. Anche se amministrativamente indipendente, la Sede Patriarcale abbraccia come fratelli gli altri organismi cattolici e anglicani, come la Comunione Romana corrente (comunemente come la Chiesa Romano Cattolica), l'Ordinariato Anglicano, e la Comunione Anglicana. La Comunione Nuova-Romana Ã¨ il Patriarcato Anglicano e le chiese dei vescovi riconosciuti dal patriarcato.
The Anglican Patriarchate (Anglican Rite Roman Catholic Church) is an ecclesiastical sovereignty by right of Rome with an independent government in special consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council. Additionally, we descend from the See of Utrecht, which was granted autonomy in 1145 by Pope Eugene III and confirmed in 1520 by Pope Leo X in the Bull Debitum Pastoralis, this right becoming known as the Leonine Privilege. As the sole successor of Pope Leo X and temporal successor of St. Peter the Apostle in Italy and Britain, the Patriarchate is fully Catholic and holds the same canonical authority as the Roman Communion (Vatican). The Patriarchate is the ecclesiastical successor to temporal Rome, the temporal patrimony of the Roman Empire claimed historically by right of the papacy. The succession passed to the Patriarchate after Benedict XVI by right of Rome and Florence, with the Archfather (Bishop of St. Stephen) with papal authority as temporal successor of St. Peter, and the Pope (Bishop of Rome) as spiritual successor of St. Peter and de facto sovereign of the Vatican City-State. Although administratively independent, the See embraces as brethren other Catholic and Anglican bodies, such as the current Roman Communion (commonly referred to as the Roman Catholic Church), the Anglican Ordinariate, and the Anglican Communion. The New Roman Communion is defined as the Anglican Patriarchate and the churches of all Bishops recognised by the Patriarchate.
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